1. What is an instrumentation amplifier?
An instrumentation (or instrumentational) amplifier is a type of differential amplifier
that has been outfitted with input buffer amplifiers, which eliminate the need for input
impedance matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test equipment.

2. Define modulation.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or
more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal
that typically contains information to be transmitted.

3. What is AM .
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic
communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In
amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in
proportion to the waveform being transmitted. That waveform may, for instance, correspond to the sounds to be reproduced by a loudspeaker, or the light intensity of television pixels.This technique contrasts with frequency modulation, in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation, in which its phase is varied.

4. What is FM .
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the
encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the
wave. (Compare with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave
varies, while the frequency remains constant.)

5. What is the purpose of using data modem.
Short for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device or program that enables a
computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves.

6. What is ZIGBEE?
ZigBee is a IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level
communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios.

7.What is PCB?
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic
components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets
laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

8. Define Voltage regulator.
A voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.
A voltage regulator may be a simple “feed-forward” design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components.

9.What is SCR?
Thyristors or silicon controlled rectifiers, SCR are find many uses in electronics, and
in particular for power control. These devices have even been called the workhorse of high
power electronics.Thyristors are able to switch large levels of power are accordingly they
used in a wide variety of different applications. Thyristors even finds uses in low power
electronics where they are used in many circuits from light dimmers to power supply over
voltage protection.

10. Define microprocessor
A siliconchip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms
microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers
and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digitaldevices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles.

12. Define microcontroller
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a
single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable
input/output peripherals.

13. Define Timer.
The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse
generation, and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an
oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one

14. Define Various modes of operation of timer.
The 555 has three main operating modes, Monostable, Astable, and Bistable. Each
mode represents a different type of circuit that has a particular output.
Astable mode, Bistable Mode (or Schmitt Trigger), Monostable mode

15. Define Amplifier.
An electronic device for increasing the amplitude of electrical signals, used chiefly in
sound reproduction.a device consisting of an amplifier combined with a loudspeaker and used to increase the volume of the sound produced by electric guitars and other musical instruments.

16. What is DSP?
Digital signal processing (DSP) refers to various techniques for improving the
accuracy and reliability of digital communications. The theory behind DSP is quite complex.Basically, DSP works by clarifying, or standardizing, the levels or states of a digital signal.

17. Define voltage controller?
A voltage controller, also called an AC voltage controller or AC regulator is an
electronic module based on either thyristors, TRIACs, SCRs or IGBTs, which converts a
fixed voltage, fixed frequency alternating current (AC) electrical input supply to obtain
variable voltage in output delivered to a resistive load.

18. State the difference between AC and DC voltage.
In direct current (DC), the electric charge (current) only flows in one direction.
Electric charge in alternating current (AC), on the other hand, changes direction periodically.
The voltage in AC circuits also periodically reverses because the current changes direction.

19. Define signal sampling
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete
signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave (a continuous signal) to a
sequence of samples (a discrete-time signal).

20. Define AWGN.
AWGN-Additive White Gaussian Noise. Its the natural noise added in the system.
Correlator are used to remove the noise. Equalizer are used to remove the ISI, in the receiver.


1. Define buck boost converter.

2. Explain the application of using buck boost converter.

3. Explain the different modes of buck boost converter

4. Define Flyback converter.

5. Explain the application of using Flyback converter.

6. Explain the different modes of Flyback converter

7. What is AM transceiver.

8. What is FM transceiver.

9. Applications of AM transceiver.

10. Applications of FM transceiver.

11. What is the purpose of using data modem.

12. Give application of wireless modem.

13. Mention the protocols used in data transfer.

14. What is PCB?

15. List the materials used for manufacturing PCB

16. Define Voltage regulator.

17. Explain the operating condition in SCR.

18. Differentiate between microcontroller and microprocessor.

19. State advantage in using microcontroller while designing any system.

20. Define Timer.

21. Define Various modes of operation of timer.

22. How a timer enhances for controlling any process.

23. Define Amplifier.

24. What is the purpose of using an instrumentation amplifier.

25. Define digital function generator?

26. What is DSP?

27. Define voltage controller?

28. State the difference between AC and DC voltage.

29. Define signal sampling

30. Define Nyquist criteria.


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